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Video report by Anthony Borden and Mykhaylo Shtekel in Zaporizhzhia region, south-eastern Ukraine, 2 Nov 2023.
A missile explodes in Gaza City during an Israeli air strike on October 8, 2023. Israel, reeling from the deadliest attack on its territory in half a century, formally declared war on Hamas Sunday as the conflict's death toll surged close to 1,000 after the Palestinian militant group launched a massive surprise assault from Gaza.
A missile explodes in Gaza City during an Israeli air strike on October 8, 2023. Israel, reeling from the deadliest attack on its territory in half a century, formally declared war on Hamas Sunday as the conflict's death toll surged close to 1,000 after the Palestinian militant group launched a massive surprise assault from Gaza. © Mahmud Hams/AFP via Getty Images
An cameraman films while smoke plumes billow during Israeli air strikes in Gaza City on October 12, 2023 as raging battles between Israel and the Hamas movement continue for the sixth consecutive day.
An cameraman films while smoke plumes billow during Israeli air strikes in Gaza City on October 12, 2023 as raging battles between Israel and the Hamas movement continue for the sixth consecutive day. © Mohammed Abed/AFP via Getty Images
Israeli soldiers remove the body of civilian, who was killed days earlier in an attack by Palestinian militants on this kibbutz near the border with Gaza, on October 10, 2023 in Kfar Aza, Israel.
Israeli soldiers remove the body of civilian, who was killed days earlier in an attack by Palestinian militants on this kibbutz near the border with Gaza, on October 10, 2023 in Kfar Aza, Israel. © Amir Levy/Getty Images
Smoke plumes billow during Israeli air strikes in Gaza City on October 12, 2023 as raging battles between Israel and the Hamas movement continue for the sixth consecutive day. Thousands of people, both Israeli and Palestinians have died since October 7, 2023, after Palestinian Hamas militants based in the Gaza Strip, entered southern Israel in a surprise attack leading Israel to declare war on Hamas in Gaza on October 8.
Smoke plumes billow during Israeli air strikes in Gaza City on October 12, 2023 as raging battles between Israel and the Hamas movement continue for the sixth consecutive day. Thousands of people, both Israeli and Palestinians have died since October 7, 2023, after Palestinian Hamas militants based in the Gaza Strip, entered southern Israel in a surprise attack leading Israel to declare war on Hamas in Gaza on October 8. © Mahmud Hams/AFP via Getty Images
Tanks move in formation near the border with Gaza on October 14, 2023 near Sderot, Israel.
Tanks move in formation near the border with Gaza on October 14, 2023 near Sderot, Israel. © Amir Levy/Getty Images
Palestinians injured in Israeli air raids arrive at Nasser Medical Hospital on October 24, 2023 in Khan Yunis, in the southern Gaza Strip, Gaza. Two weeks after a deadly Hamas attack in southern Israel that sparked a retaliatory siege of Gaza, in which thousands have died and hundreds of thousands have been displaced.
Palestinians injured in Israeli air raids arrive at Nasser Medical Hospital on October 24, 2023 in Khan Yunis, in the southern Gaza Strip, Gaza. Two weeks after a deadly Hamas attack in southern Israel that sparked a retaliatory siege of Gaza, in which thousands have died and hundreds of thousands have been displaced. © Ahmad Hasaballah/Getty Images
Fire and smoke rise above buildings in Gaza City during an Israeli air strike, on October 13, 2023, as raging battles between Israel and the Hamas movement continue for the sixth consecutive day.
Fire and smoke rise above buildings in Gaza City during an Israeli air strike, on October 13, 2023, as raging battles between Israel and the Hamas movement continue for the sixth consecutive day. © Mahmud Hams/AFP via Getty Images
A swing is left intact while most the house is left in ruins, where five family members were kidnapped and three are still missing, after Hamas militants attacked this kibbutz near the Gaza border.
A swing is left intact while most the house is left in ruins, where five family members were kidnapped and three are still missing, after Hamas militants attacked this kibbutz near the Gaza border. © Alexi J. Rosenfeld/Getty Images
Pro Palestine protesters take part in a demonstration on October 20, 2023 in Istanbul, Turkey. There has been a growing number of pro-Palestinian demonstrations worldwide amid the renewed fighting between Israel and Hamas, which launched a surprise attack in southern Israel on October 7. Israel responded with a massive bombing campaign in Gaza.
Pro Palestine protesters take part in a demonstration on October 20, 2023 in Istanbul, Turkey. There has been a growing number of pro-Palestinian demonstrations worldwide amid the renewed fighting between Israel and Hamas, which launched a surprise attack in southern Israel on October 7. Israel responded with a massive bombing campaign in Gaza. © Burak Kara/Getty Images
Palestinians leave al-Karama neighbourhood in Gaza City to safer areas on October 11, 2023, as raging battles between Israel and the Hamas movement continued for the fifth consecutive day. The death toll from five days of ferocious fighting between Hamas and Israel rose sharply overnight as Israel kept up its bombardment of Gaza after recovering the dead from the last communities near the border where Palestinian militants had been holed up.
Palestinians leave al-Karama neighbourhood in Gaza City to safer areas on October 11, 2023, as raging battles between Israel and the Hamas movement continued for the fifth consecutive day. The death toll from five days of ferocious fighting between Hamas and Israel rose sharply overnight as Israel kept up its bombardment of Gaza after recovering the dead from the last communities near the border where Palestinian militants had been holed up. © Mahmud Hamd/AFP via Getty Images
SPOTLIGHT

The Israel-Hamas Conflict

As journalists on the ground struggle to cover the conflict, IWPR looks at how disinformation and hate speech is proliferating online to further fuel violence that threatens to have global consequences.

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Ukrainian tank crew near Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ukraine.
Ukrainian tank crew near Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ukraine. © John Moore/Getty Images
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Ukraine: Sounds and Silence of a Long War

As the Ukrainian commander-in-chief warns of endless trench warfare, that’s exactly how it feels at the front.

Anthony Borden
Anthony Borden
IWPR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Carl Court/Getty Images
28 November 2023

Ukraine Justice Report - Issue 69

• Rifle Commander to be Tried for Sexual Violence
• Training and Technology Support Justice Processes, But Challenges Remain
• Justice Briefing + more
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© Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

Ukraine Justice Report

Ukraine Justice Report provides updated and in-depth coverage of judicial processes taking place across the country. 
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CABAR logo

Highlights from IWPR’s Central Asia network of analysis and investigations.

In Kazakstan, ArcelorMittal Temirtau, the country's largest mining company, enjoyed state support for decades. But the death of 46 miners in October brought this backing to an end. Meanwhile, in Uzbekistan, Tajik nationals serving sentences on espionage charges in Uzbek prisons ask for a review of their cases.

Elsewhere, CABAR gets a unique insight into two of the eight Catholic nunneries still operating in northern Kazakstan.

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Madlena Ghahiryan with two of her nine grandchildren. “The journey from our homeland was harrowing. We had no food, not even bread… We found wood along the way, lit a fire and managed to roast some potatoes.”
Madlena Ghahiryan with two of her nine grandchildren. “The journey from our homeland was harrowing. We had no food, not even bread… We found wood along the way, lit a fire and managed to roast some potatoes.” © Siranush Sargsyan
Kindergarten No. 6 in Artashat, a city of 22,000 people in western Armenia, was turned into a temporary shelter for 74 people from Nagorny Karabakh.
Kindergarten No. 6 in Artashat, a city of 22,000 people in western Armenia, was turned into a temporary shelter for 74 people from Nagorny Karabakh. © Siranush Sargsyan
Karine Harutyunyan, the director of the kindergarten, works distributing humanitarian aid sent by diaspora Armenians. Harutyunyan noted that they needed all basic household items including beds, blankets, household appliances and clothing as most people left with just the clothes they were wearing.
Karine Harutyunyan, the director of the kindergarten, works distributing humanitarian aid sent by diaspora Armenians. Harutyunyan noted that they needed all basic household items including beds, blankets, household appliances and clothing as most people left with just the clothes they were wearing. © Siranush Sargsyan
The 74 refugees hosted in the kindergarten come from various districts of Karabakh. They all arrived within days from Azerbaijan’s military offensive to regain control of the region after 30 years of conflict.
The 74 refugees hosted in the kindergarten come from various districts of Karabakh. They all arrived within days from Azerbaijan’s military offensive to regain control of the region after 30 years of conflict. © Siranush Sargsyan
Marianna Abrahamyan’s most precious thing is her little parrot, the only thing the 14-year-old managed to take as she fled Stepanakert with her family.
Marianna Abrahamyan’s most precious thing is her little parrot, the only thing the 14-year-old managed to take as she fled Stepanakert with her family. © Siranush Sargsyan
Alvard Dadayan's daughter-in-law feeds children in the shelter.
Alvard Dadayan's daughter-in-law feeds children in the shelter. © Siranush Sargsyan
Displaced families take turns using the only washing machine in the kindergarten. State aid programmes and support from NGOs and international organisations cannot address the needs of such a large number of people, note refugees and aid workers.
Displaced families take turns using the only washing machine in the kindergarten. State aid programmes and support from NGOs and international organisations cannot address the needs of such a large number of people, note refugees and aid workers. © Siranush Sargsyan
The kindergarten houses entire families in its small classrooms.
The kindergarten houses entire families in its small classrooms. © Siranush Sargsyan
Madlena Ghahiryan irons clothes in one of the rooms of the kindergarten that has been turned into a living room. The 62-year-old nurse from the village of Khramort shares a room with 17 members of her family.
Madlena Ghahiryan irons clothes in one of the rooms of the kindergarten that has been turned into a living room. The 62-year-old nurse from the village of Khramort shares a room with 17 members of her family. © Siranush Sargsyan
The journey to Armenia was particularly hard for old people like Julieta Shahbazyan, who, at 86, left her native village of Aygestan for the first time. She is living in the kindergarten with 23 members of her family.
The journey to Armenia was particularly hard for old people like Julieta Shahbazyan, who, at 86, left her native village of Aygestan for the first time. She is living in the kindergarten with 23 members of her family. © Siranush Sargsyan
Miriam, the wife of Julieta Shahbazyan’s grandson, is the only person in her extended family with a job: she works at the local confectionery factory in Artashat.
Miriam, the wife of Julieta Shahbazyan’s grandson, is the only person in her extended family with a job: she works at the local confectionery factory in Artashat. © Siranush Sargsyan
Alvard Dadayan's grandchildren live and play in the kindergarten. “They are my only joy,” said the 54-year-old from Stepanakert, who lost her husband in the 1990s during the first Karabakh war.
Alvard Dadayan's grandchildren live and play in the kindergarten. “They are my only joy,” said the 54-year-old from Stepanakert, who lost her husband in the 1990s during the first Karabakh war. © Siranush Sargsyan
Hermine Hayrapetyan, 35, says she does not have concrete plans for the future. “We still struggle to grasp the full extent of what has happened to us, we do not know what the future holds.”
Hermine Hayrapetyan, 35, says she does not have concrete plans for the future. “We still struggle to grasp the full extent of what has happened to us, we do not know what the future holds.” © Siranush Sargsyan
Hayrapetyan's nephew, Artur, is studying in one of the kindergarten’s corridors. He attends Artashat’s school number five.
Hayrapetyan's nephew, Artur, is studying in one of the kindergarten’s corridors. He attends Artashat’s school number five. © Siranush Sargsyan
Marianna and her cousin Anna. On September 19, as Azerbaijan launched its military offensive, communication was bad and Anna was missing. Her mother and aunt searched for her and found her in a basement in Stepanakert where strangers had sheltered her from the bombardments.
Marianna and her cousin Anna. On September 19, as Azerbaijan launched its military offensive, communication was bad and Anna was missing. Her mother and aunt searched for her and found her in a basement in Stepanakert where strangers had sheltered her from the bombardments. © Siranush Sargsyan
Largely populated by ethnic Tajiks, Gelon sits at 2,336 metres, surrounded by the Hisar range, part of the Pamir-Alay mountain system. It can take up to three hours to cover the 70 kilometres from Uzbkistan’s southern city of Shakhrisabz to reach this high-altitude village.
Largely populated by ethnic Tajiks, Gelon sits at 2,336 metres, surrounded by the Hisar range, part of the Pamir-Alay mountain system. It can take up to three hours to cover the 70 kilometres from Uzbkistan’s southern city of Shakhrisabz to reach this high-altitude village. © Abdulhak Turgunov
A woman carries grass on a donkey through the village. Donkeys and horses are key to the village as narrow streets and rough terrain make it difficult to use cars and other vehicles. Tractors also struggle with the uneven terrain; villagers largely plant their crops by hand and use donkeys and cows for ploughing.
A woman carries grass on a donkey through the village. Donkeys and horses are key to the village as narrow streets and rough terrain make it difficult to use cars and other vehicles. Tractors also struggle with the uneven terrain; villagers largely plant their crops by hand and use donkeys and cows for ploughing. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Tajiik “non” bread, is traditionally baked in the tandoor, a clay oven. Gelon has its own mill, which produces flour from locally grown grains.
Tajiik “non” bread, is traditionally baked in the tandoor, a clay oven. Gelon has its own mill, which produces flour from locally grown grains. © Abdulhak Turgunov
A couple head to the fields on a small tractor, a rarity in the area. The land around Gelon buzzes with life in summer as villagers prepare for the long, harsh winter months. They bring their crops, including the village’s famed potatoes, down to the valley and return with supplies to get through the winter when traveling down to the plain is extremely difficult.
A couple head to the fields on a small tractor, a rarity in the area. The land around Gelon buzzes with life in summer as villagers prepare for the long, harsh winter months. They bring their crops, including the village’s famed potatoes, down to the valley and return with supplies to get through the winter when traveling down to the plain is extremely difficult. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Animal husbandry is central to village life: cattle and flocks are kept on the ground floor of each house and villagers graze them in turns. Carpentry, blacksmithing, pottery and other crafts also support the local economy.
Animal husbandry is central to village life: cattle and flocks are kept on the ground floor of each house and villagers graze them in turns. Carpentry, blacksmithing, pottery and other crafts also support the local economy. © Abdulhak Turgunov
A road sign indicating the way to Gelon is supplemented by a warning about the dangerous road ahead.
A road sign indicating the way to Gelon is supplemented by a warning about the dangerous road ahead. © Abdulhak Turgunov
A boy drives his sheep to pasture in the mountains.
A boy drives his sheep to pasture in the mountains. © Abdulhak Turgunov
One of Gelon’s oldest residents, known as Grandfather Rozakul. In his late 70s, he is an example of the villagers’ longevity as the average life expectancy is 78-80 years, compared to Uzbekistan’s average of 73.8 years.
One of Gelon’s oldest residents, known as Grandfather Rozakul. In his late 70s, he is an example of the villagers’ longevity as the average life expectancy is 78-80 years, compared to Uzbekistan’s average of 73.8 years. © Abdulhak Turgunov
The Hisorak reservoir at 1,800 metres above sea level provides water to the area.
The Hisorak reservoir at 1,800 metres above sea level provides water to the area. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Cows head to the Hisorak reservoir, a key water resource for the area around Gelon. Scorching summers affect the reservoir’s water levels.
Cows head to the Hisorak reservoir, a key water resource for the area around Gelon. Scorching summers affect the reservoir’s water levels. © Abdulhak Turgunov
A woman washes carpets in the street by her house. Carpets are central to Tajik houses and are regularly beaten and scrubbed.
A woman washes carpets in the street by her house. Carpets are central to Tajik houses and are regularly beaten and scrubbed. © Abdulhak Turgunov
One of many local tandoors, the traditional oven made of clay used to baked non, Tajik bread. The village has two schools, a teahouse and a small market. A small museum displays traditional musical instruments and old photographs.
One of many local tandoors, the traditional oven made of clay used to baked non, Tajik bread. The village has two schools, a teahouse and a small market. A small museum displays traditional musical instruments and old photographs. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Men at the entrance of the mosque named after Muhammad Ibn Geloni. The mosque is not only a place for prayers, but a centre for the local community.
Men at the entrance of the mosque named after Muhammad Ibn Geloni. The mosque is not only a place for prayers, but a centre for the local community. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Gelon’s mosque named after Muhammad Ibn Geloni was built in 1848.
Gelon’s mosque named after Muhammad Ibn Geloni was built in 1848. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Village elders outside the mosque. Usto Toichi (left) is Gelon’s well-known carpenter and knife maker.
Village elders outside the mosque. Usto Toichi (left) is Gelon’s well-known carpenter and knife maker. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Residents work on the roof of an old house, near one of the local tandoor bread ovens. In the close-knit community mutual support is important: residents say they all know each other “up to the seventh generation”.
Residents work on the roof of an old house, near one of the local tandoor bread ovens. In the close-knit community mutual support is important: residents say they all know each other “up to the seventh generation”. © Abdulhak Turgunov
A woman pours grain on the roof. Some of the village’s oldest houses have an earthen roof and residents use the surface to dry fruit and grain.
A woman pours grain on the roof. Some of the village’s oldest houses have an earthen roof and residents use the surface to dry fruit and grain. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Gelon’s ambulance. The village has a small clinic, which serves various communities in the area.
Gelon’s ambulance. The village has a small clinic, which serves various communities in the area. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Children learn very early in their life to ride donkeys as the animals are key to life in the village.
Children learn very early in their life to ride donkeys as the animals are key to life in the village. © Abdulhak Turgunov
Nizоm, a driver, in his garden.
Nizоm, a driver, in his garden. © Abdulhak Turgunov
A resident ventures out of his apartment block in north Saltivka. (April 2022)
A resident ventures out of his apartment block in north Saltivka. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
Serhiy, 59, cooks dinner with neighbours and friends on a open fire in the yard of his apartment block. (May 2022)
Serhiy, 59, cooks dinner with neighbours and friends on a open fire in the yard of his apartment block. (May 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
A resident in north Saltivka’s Str. Nataly Uzhviy street chops trees. The whole area lacks electricity and gas and people resort to cutting trees to cook and warm themselves. (May 2022)
A resident in north Saltivka’s Str. Nataly Uzhviy street chops trees. The whole area lacks electricity and gas and people resort to cutting trees to cook and warm themselves. (May 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
Saltivka resident shows a soldier the most damaged places in Barabasovo market. (April 2022)
Saltivka resident shows a soldier the most damaged places in Barabasovo market. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
Firefighters brigade rush to Nataly Uzhviy street as Russian troops shell the northern area of Saltivka. (April 2022)
Firefighters brigade rush to Nataly Uzhviy street as Russian troops shell the northern area of Saltivka. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
A destroyed Russian tank sits abandoned on tram tracks in south Saltivka. (April 2022)
A destroyed Russian tank sits abandoned on tram tracks in south Saltivka. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
Firefighters tame a fire in an apartment block on. Lesya Serduka streets after rockets were fired on north Saltivka. (April 2022)
Firefighters tame a fire in an apartment block on. Lesya Serduka streets after rockets were fired on north Saltivka. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
A woman rides her bicycle trough destroyed houses and deserted streets in north Saltivka in early April when the district suffered some of the most intense shelling. (April 2022)
A woman rides her bicycle trough destroyed houses and deserted streets in north Saltivka in early April when the district suffered some of the most intense shelling. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
A room in the half-destroyed School 172 is used as a communal kitchen with an open fire. (April 2022)
A room in the half-destroyed School 172 is used as a communal kitchen with an open fire. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
Weeks of relentless shelling has left the sprawling district littered with burned car and destroyed houses. (April 2022)
Weeks of relentless shelling has left the sprawling district littered with burned car and destroyed houses. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
A man stares at his flat struck by a Russian rocket in mid-April 2022.
A man stares at his flat struck by a Russian rocket in mid-April 2022. © Oleksandr Magula
A destroyed house with graffiti reading "Люди" – People. (April 2022)
A destroyed house with graffiti reading "Люди" – People. (April 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
Mykhail indicates what remains of his apartment after a day of shelling. His block still stands, but little more than ash remains of many flats. (May 2022)
Mykhail indicates what remains of his apartment after a day of shelling. His block still stands, but little more than ash remains of many flats. (May 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
Panorama view of North Saltivka and abandoned apartments. (May 2022)
Panorama view of North Saltivka and abandoned apartments. (May 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
A view of what remains of Lesya Serdyka street. (May 2022)
A view of what remains of Lesya Serdyka street. (May 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
A Ukrainian army checkpoint during a demining operation in northern Saltivka. Mines as well as remnants of rockets, abandoned military vehicles and also widely banned cluster munitions are all across the district. (May 2022)
A Ukrainian army checkpoint during a demining operation in northern Saltivka. Mines as well as remnants of rockets, abandoned military vehicles and also widely banned cluster munitions are all across the district. (May 2022) © Oleksandr Magula
The troupe of the Drama Theater of Mariupol at the end of the play.
The troupe of the Drama Theater of Mariupol at the end of the play. © Sergey Hudak
Ihor Kitrysh and Olena Bila, both 41, worked together in Mariupol for 19 years. After a Russian rocket destroyed their apartment, the couple and their ten-year-old son moved in to the theatre’s costume workshop. On March 15, they decided to leave and head to the Kharkiv region, where Ihor is originally from. From there, they traveled to Chernivtsi, western Ukraine, where they worked in the local theatre. They then moved to Uzhhorod when they learnt that the crew would revive the theatre there.
Ihor Kitrysh and Olena Bila, both 41, worked together in Mariupol for 19 years. After a Russian rocket destroyed their apartment, the couple and their ten-year-old son moved in to the theatre’s costume workshop. On March 15, they decided to leave and head to the Kharkiv region, where Ihor is originally from. From there, they traveled to Chernivtsi, western Ukraine, where they worked in the local theatre. They then moved to Uzhhorod when they learnt that the crew would revive the theatre there. © Sergey Hudak
Actor Dmytro Murantsev, 22, was in the theatre basement with his girlfriend when the Russians shelled the building. They survived because they stayed down as his girlfriend was cooking fish on a fire. When the basement filled with dust, they managed to get out. “I remember that it was cold and that we ran. I was in my Spiderman pyjamas.”
Actor Dmytro Murantsev, 22, was in the theatre basement with his girlfriend when the Russians shelled the building. They survived because they stayed down as his girlfriend was cooking fish on a fire. When the basement filled with dust, they managed to get out. “I remember that it was cold and that we ran. I was in my Spiderman pyjamas.” © Sergey Hudak
Lyudmila Kolosovych follows the rehearsal of Cry of a Nation. The 58-year-old acting director of the Mariupol Drama Theater joined the crew in 2020. “I chose to relocate to Uzhhorod because it is the farthest point from military operations. In such conditions, actors will be able to be calm and focus on their work.”
Lyudmila Kolosovych follows the rehearsal of Cry of a Nation. The 58-year-old acting director of the Mariupol Drama Theater joined the crew in 2020. “I chose to relocate to Uzhhorod because it is the farthest point from military operations. In such conditions, actors will be able to be calm and focus on their work.” © Sergey Hudak
Vera Lebedynska, 64, sheltered from the shelling in the theatre for two weeks. She survived the March 16 attack. "We ran over corpses," she recalled. It took her eight days to get from Mariupol to Zaporizhzhia. Traumatised, she made it to the Lviv region where she stopped, trying to recover. But when she heard about the revival of the Mariupol theatre, "I immediately said ‘I'm coming!"
Vera Lebedynska, 64, sheltered from the shelling in the theatre for two weeks. She survived the March 16 attack. "We ran over corpses," she recalled. It took her eight days to get from Mariupol to Zaporizhzhia. Traumatised, she made it to the Lviv region where she stopped, trying to recover. But when she heard about the revival of the Mariupol theatre, "I immediately said ‘I'm coming!" © Sergey Hudak
Anatoly Shevchenko, 68, has been with the Mariupol Drama Theatre’s crew for 23 years. He endured the shelling of the port city with his mother and sister. When his mother died of a heart attack, Shevchenko could not bury her. He still struggles to come to terms with it. Together with his sister he was sent to a filtration camp and then to Russia. From there they managed to get to Georgia, then to Germany and Poland. Finally, they made it back into Ukraine.
Anatoly Shevchenko, 68, has been with the Mariupol Drama Theatre’s crew for 23 years. He endured the shelling of the port city with his mother and sister. When his mother died of a heart attack, Shevchenko could not bury her. He still struggles to come to terms with it. Together with his sister he was sent to a filtration camp and then to Russia. From there they managed to get to Georgia, then to Germany and Poland. Finally, they made it back into Ukraine. © Sergey Hudak
People look at photographs from the frontline in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine, by photojournalist Serhiy Vaganov. An exhibition was organised in the foyer of the Transcarpathian Regional Music and Drama Theatre in Uzhhorod.
People look at photographs from the frontline in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine, by photojournalist Serhiy Vaganov. An exhibition was organised in the foyer of the Transcarpathian Regional Music and Drama Theatre in Uzhhorod. © Sergey Hudak
A member of Ukraine’s armed forces stares at photographs from the frontline in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine, by photojournalist Serhiy Vaganov.
A member of Ukraine’s armed forces stares at photographs from the frontline in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine, by photojournalist Serhiy Vaganov. © Sergey Hudak
Uzhhorod writer Bundy Sholtes in the foyer of the Transcarpathian Regional Music and Drama Theatre.
Uzhhorod writer Bundy Sholtes in the foyer of the Transcarpathian Regional Music and Drama Theatre. © Sergey Hudak
The seven actors in a scene of Cry of a Nation.
The seven actors in a scene of Cry of a Nation. © Sergey Hudak
Ihor Kitrysh as Vasyl Stus, a Ukrainian writer who died in a Soviet labor camp in 1985 at the age of 47.
Ihor Kitrysh as Vasyl Stus, a Ukrainian writer who died in a Soviet labor camp in 1985 at the age of 47. © Sergey Hudak
A scene from the play Cry of a Nation.
A scene from the play Cry of a Nation. © Sergey Hudak
The stage of the Mariupol theatre during Cry of a Nation.
The stage of the Mariupol theatre during Cry of a Nation. © Sergey Hudak
Ihor Kitrysh and Olena Bila and their ten-year-old son Matviy in their role of Vasyl Stus, his wife and son Dmytro.
Ihor Kitrysh and Olena Bila and their ten-year-old son Matviy in their role of Vasyl Stus, his wife and son Dmytro. © Sergey Hudak
A scene from the performance of Cry of a Nation.
A scene from the performance of Cry of a Nation. © Sergey Hudak
Cry of the Nation ends with Stus' call to fight for Ukraine and the audience breaks into a standing ovation.
Cry of the Nation ends with Stus' call to fight for Ukraine and the audience breaks into a standing ovation. © Sergey Hudak
Mariupol Drama Theatre actors at the end of their first show since the bombing of the building on March 16.
Mariupol Drama Theatre actors at the end of their first show since the bombing of the building on March 16. © Sergey Hudak
A woman wipes her tears after the performance Cry of a Nation.
A woman wipes her tears after the performance Cry of a Nation.
Vasyl leaves the battlefield after being wounded. He lost his son, a soldier, in early March.
Vasyl leaves the battlefield after being wounded. He lost his son, a soldier, in early March. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Russian T-72 tank on fire after a clash with the armed forces of Ukraine, Lugansk region.
Russian T-72 tank on fire after a clash with the armed forces of Ukraine, Lugansk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A Ukrainian MLRS Grad is shot from Ukrainian positions in Luhansk region.
A Ukrainian MLRS Grad is shot from Ukrainian positions in Luhansk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Ukrainian soldiers fight near the village of Zolote, Lugansk region.
Ukrainian soldiers fight near the village of Zolote, Lugansk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A Ukrainian soldier walks near a destroyed Russian tank in the village of Gusarovka, in Kharkiv region.
A Ukrainian soldier walks near a destroyed Russian tank in the village of Gusarovka, in Kharkiv region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A soldier's boot splattered with blood in the waiting room of a military hospital in Kramatorsk, north of Donetsk.
A soldier's boot splattered with blood in the waiting room of a military hospital in Kramatorsk, north of Donetsk. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A Ukrainian tanker surfaces from the military vehicle after a successful battle south of Kharkiv region.
A Ukrainian tanker surfaces from the military vehicle after a successful battle south of Kharkiv region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A Ukrainian soldier walks past a missile from the MLRS Uragan at a frontline position near Izyum. The town, about 124 kilometres south of Kharkiv, was the site of a fierce battle as Russian sought to control it due to its importance as a transport node.
A Ukrainian soldier walks past a missile from the MLRS Uragan at a frontline position near Izyum. The town, about 124 kilometres south of Kharkiv, was the site of a fierce battle as Russian sought to control it due to its importance as a transport node. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Ukrainian soldiers preparing for an attack in Luhansk region.
Ukrainian soldiers preparing for an attack in Luhansk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Ukrainian artillerymen rest at their positions in the Lugansk region.
Ukrainian artillerymen rest at their positions in the Lugansk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A military medic and police officers try to help people after a rocket attack on the railway station in Kramatorsk, a city with a pre-war population of 157,000, north of Donetsk, eastern Ukraine.
A military medic and police officers try to help people after a rocket attack on the railway station in Kramatorsk, a city with a pre-war population of 157,000, north of Donetsk, eastern Ukraine. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Eva plays with her kitten near the shelter where she lives with her mother and brother in the city of Rubizhne, about 117 kilometres north of Luhansk.
Eva plays with her kitten near the shelter where she lives with her mother and brother in the city of Rubizhne, about 117 kilometres north of Luhansk. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A resident of the city of Lysychansk walks past the remains of a Smerch rocket on a city street in April.
A resident of the city of Lysychansk walks past the remains of a Smerch rocket on a city street in April. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Residents of Lysychansk examine the crater from the explosion of a FAB 500 air bomb in the courtyard of a multi-storey building in mid-April.
Residents of Lysychansk examine the crater from the explosion of a FAB 500 air bomb in the courtyard of a multi-storey building in mid-April. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Kharkiv residents in the city’s Geroev Pratsi metro station. Many families have sheltered in metro stations for over two months.
Kharkiv residents in the city’s Geroev Pratsi metro station. Many families have sheltered in metro stations for over two months. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Residents of Lyman, a town controlled by the Russian-backed separatists of the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, in an armoured bus during the evacuation of the village of Rayhorodka, Donetsk region.
Residents of Lyman, a town controlled by the Russian-backed separatists of the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, in an armoured bus during the evacuation of the village of Rayhorodka, Donetsk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Volunteers carry Lyman resident Nina Tikhomirova on a stretcher into an ambulance during her evacuation from the village of Raigorodka, Donetsk region.
Volunteers carry Lyman resident Nina Tikhomirova on a stretcher into an ambulance during her evacuation from the village of Raigorodka, Donetsk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A private house destroyed by an artillery shell in the village of Mykolaivka, Donetsk region.
A private house destroyed by an artillery shell in the village of Mykolaivka, Donetsk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Employees of Ukraine’s state emergency situations service help a disabled person during the evacuation of civilians at the railway station in the city of Pokrovsk, in Donetsk region.
Employees of Ukraine’s state emergency situations service help a disabled person during the evacuation of civilians at the railway station in the city of Pokrovsk, in Donetsk region. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Residents of Severodonetsk hide in the basement of a house during artillery shelling.
Residents of Severodonetsk hide in the basement of a house during artillery shelling. © Anatoliy Stepanov
A wounded resident of Severodonetsk in the hospital before surgery. A shell exploded in his yard in April.
A wounded resident of Severodonetsk in the hospital before surgery. A shell exploded in his yard in April. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Residents of Severodonetsk come out of hiding after shelling, four days after Russia launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine.
Residents of Severodonetsk come out of hiding after shelling, four days after Russia launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine.
An apartment building in Bakhmut destroyed by rocket fire on June 13, 2022. Civilians feel the onslaught of advancing Russian troops in the city located about 60 kilometres south-west of Severodonetsk and is located on the main road leading to the city at the epicentre of the fighting.
An apartment building in Bakhmut destroyed by rocket fire on June 13, 2022. Civilians feel the onslaught of advancing Russian troops in the city located about 60 kilometres south-west of Severodonetsk and is located on the main road leading to the city at the epicentre of the fighting. © Anatoliy Stepanov
Women dance to mark Navruz in Baysun, a village in Uzbekistan’s south-eastern region of Surkhandarya. The village is known for its festival, the Baysun Bahori, meaning Spring of Baysun.
Women dance to mark Navruz in Baysun, a village in Uzbekistan’s south-eastern region of Surkhandarya. The village is known for its festival, the Baysun Bahori, meaning Spring of Baysun. © Abdulkhak Turgunov
Sprouted grain is a symbol of Navruz andit can be found on every table in the communities marking the festivity, from the Balkans to Central Asia. Shoots are usually of wheat, but they can also be of barley or lentils, and are an auspicious symbol for abundant harvest and prosperity. Grown on a plate, they are the centrepiece of all Navruz tables.
Sprouted grain is a symbol of Navruz andit can be found on every table in the communities marking the festivity, from the Balkans to Central Asia. Shoots are usually of wheat, but they can also be of barley or lentils, and are an auspicious symbol for abundant harvest and prosperity. Grown on a plate, they are the centrepiece of all Navruz tables. © Abdulkhak Turgunov
Women sing and play the doira, Uzbekistan’s national musical instrument. A tambourine-like instrument, the doira has a medium-sized frame with a tightly stretched membrane and jingles attached. Also known as daf, it is considered one of Central Asia’s most ancient percussive instruments and it was originally played only by women during shamanic rituals.
Women sing and play the doira, Uzbekistan’s national musical instrument. A tambourine-like instrument, the doira has a medium-sized frame with a tightly stretched membrane and jingles attached. Also known as daf, it is considered one of Central Asia’s most ancient percussive instruments and it was originally played only by women during shamanic rituals. © Abdulkhak Turgunov
A folk ensemble performs during Navruz.
A folk ensemble performs during Navruz. © Abdulkhak Turgunov
Traditionally cooked only by women, sumalak’s origins are shrouded in legend. According to one Uzbek story, a poor woman, needing to feed her four children, put river pebbles and a bunch of grass in her biggest cauldron and cooked it for a long time so that her kids would fall asleep without asking for food. She also fell asleep and when she woke up found the cauldron full of a brown, sweet and nourishing paste. She thought that angels, witnessing her plight, decided to help her. She fed her children and sh
Traditionally cooked only by women, sumalak’s origins are shrouded in legend. According to one Uzbek story, a poor woman, needing to feed her four children, put river pebbles and a bunch of grass in her biggest cauldron and cooked it for a long time so that her kids would fall asleep without asking for food. She also fell asleep and when she woke up found the cauldron full of a brown, sweet and nourishing paste. She thought that angels, witnessing her plight, decided to help her. She fed her children and shared the food with neighbours, a custom which remains today. © Abdulkhak Turgunov
A large bonfire welcomed Navruz in Tajikistan’s capital Dushanbe on the night of March 21, 2023. In villages and towns across the countries marking the celebration, people jump over small fires to symbolise a leap from the past towards the future.
A large bonfire welcomed Navruz in Tajikistan’s capital Dushanbe on the night of March 21, 2023. In villages and towns across the countries marking the celebration, people jump over small fires to symbolise a leap from the past towards the future. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
 A man dances near the Navruz bonfire, in central Dushanbe.
A man dances near the Navruz bonfire, in central Dushanbe. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
Women stirring large quantities of sumalak in Dushanbe. One legend about the dish involves a farmer, who moistened wheat grains as he prepared to sow. The grains sprouted, so he asked his wife to cook them so they would not go to waste. After a long boil, the dish turned into the sweet paste still eaten today.
Women stirring large quantities of sumalak in Dushanbe. One legend about the dish involves a farmer, who moistened wheat grains as he prepared to sow. The grains sprouted, so he asked his wife to cook them so they would not go to waste. After a long boil, the dish turned into the sweet paste still eaten today. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
Women sell plates of sumalak at a Navruz fair in Dushanbe.
Women sell plates of sumalak at a Navruz fair in Dushanbe. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
Women sing and play the doira, also known as daf. The tambourine-like instrument has a frame with a tightly stretched membrane and jingles attached.
Women sing and play the doira, also known as daf. The tambourine-like instrument has a frame with a tightly stretched membrane and jingles attached. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
A buzkashi competition in a field in Vahdat, a suburb of Dushanbe. In Tajikistan’s traditional equestrian sport, common also in Afghanistan, men on horseback take the carcass of a dead goat from each other and throw it into a goal.
A buzkashi competition in a field in Vahdat, a suburb of Dushanbe. In Tajikistan’s traditional equestrian sport, common also in Afghanistan, men on horseback take the carcass of a dead goat from each other and throw it into a goal. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
 A Tajik woman in traditional clothes plays the daf, or doira, a tambourine-like instrument with jingles, played across Central Asia.
A Tajik woman in traditional clothes plays the daf, or doira, a tambourine-like instrument with jingles, played across Central Asia. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
Tajik women sit at a covered dastarkhan, a traditional space where food is eaten. It comes from the Turkic word meaning tablecloth.
Tajik women sit at a covered dastarkhan, a traditional space where food is eaten. It comes from the Turkic word meaning tablecloth. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
Tajik young women in national clothes.
Tajik young women in national clothes. © Abdurakhmon Rakhmonov
A woman stands in the centre of Tiraspol, holding a No War sign. Public opinion about the war remains divided: there are between 100,000 and 120,000 Ukrainians living in the region, but ties with Russia are strong.
A woman stands in the centre of Tiraspol, holding a No War sign. Public opinion about the war remains divided: there are between 100,000 and 120,000 Ukrainians living in the region, but ties with Russia are strong. © Alexander Udodov
Tents and temporary sanitary facilities were set up at Kuchurgan-Pervomaisk, the main crossing point between Transnistria and Ukraine, in Odesa region. Ukraine shut its side of the border on February 28.
Tents and temporary sanitary facilities were set up at Kuchurgan-Pervomaisk, the main crossing point between Transnistria and Ukraine, in Odesa region. Ukraine shut its side of the border on February 28. © Alexander Udodov
The Transnistrian side of the now-closed Kuchurgan-Pervomaisk crossing point with Ukraine. The closest village on the other side is Mayak, about three kilometres away. Transnistria has welcomed up to 6,000 refugees.
The Transnistrian side of the now-closed Kuchurgan-Pervomaisk crossing point with Ukraine. The closest village on the other side is Mayak, about three kilometres away. Transnistria has welcomed up to 6,000 refugees. © Alexander Udodov
Food and basic items to be distributed to Ukrainian refugees in Palanca, a Moldovan village about 65 km from the Black Sea port of Odesa.
Food and basic items to be distributed to Ukrainian refugees in Palanca, a Moldovan village about 65 km from the Black Sea port of Odesa. © Alexander Udodov
A sign says No War in a Tiraspol apartment hosting refugees from Ukraine. Authorities have allocated temporary housing for Ukrainians crossing into Transnistria, with many residents making their homes available.
A sign says No War in a Tiraspol apartment hosting refugees from Ukraine. Authorities have allocated temporary housing for Ukrainians crossing into Transnistria, with many residents making their homes available. © Alexander Udodov
Job advertisements to work in Moscow and other Russian cities are an everyday sight in Transnistria. An estimated one third of the territory’s residents work in Russia. Leaflets offering jobs in Poland are also becoming more common.
Job advertisements to work in Moscow and other Russian cities are an everyday sight in Transnistria. An estimated one third of the territory’s residents work in Russia. Leaflets offering jobs in Poland are also becoming more common. © Alexander Udodov
A Russian flag painted on an apartment block in a residential area. Ties with Russia are profound, and Russians are about 29 per cent of the region’s 473,000 residents, making them the largest group.
A Russian flag painted on an apartment block in a residential area. Ties with Russia are profound, and Russians are about 29 per cent of the region’s 473,000 residents, making them the largest group. © Alexander Udodov
A supermarket belonging to Sheriff Ltd, the region’s largest holding. The company, created in the mid-1990s by Viktor Gusan and Ilya Kazmaly, is said to control 60 per cent of the economy. It comprises supermarkets, gas stations, hotels, a mobile phone network, bakeries and a distillery as well as a mini media empire of radio and TV stations.
A supermarket belonging to Sheriff Ltd, the region’s largest holding. The company, created in the mid-1990s by Viktor Gusan and Ilya Kazmaly, is said to control 60 per cent of the economy. It comprises supermarkets, gas stations, hotels, a mobile phone network, bakeries and a distillery as well as a mini media empire of radio and TV stations. © Alexander Udodov
An old woman begs in central Tiraspol by the equestrian monument dedicated to Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, the Russian general who founded the city in 1792. Poverty is high, particularly among old people, and low salaries push hundreds out of the region every year in search of jobs.
An old woman begs in central Tiraspol by the equestrian monument dedicated to Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, the Russian general who founded the city in 1792. Poverty is high, particularly among old people, and low salaries push hundreds out of the region every year in search of jobs. © Alexander Udodov
A lone musician busks in the centre of Tiraspol by a sign indicating that all the money raised will be donated to refugee assistance.
A lone musician busks in the centre of Tiraspol by a sign indicating that all the money raised will be donated to refugee assistance. © Alexander Udodov
A billboard reads Transnistria is Founded to Live on the flag of the breakaway republic, the only one in the world that still bears the hammer and sickle insignia. The banner marks the 30th anniversary of the de facto authorities’ declaration of independence, on September 2, 1990.
A billboard reads Transnistria is Founded to Live on the flag of the breakaway republic, the only one in the world that still bears the hammer and sickle insignia. The banner marks the 30th anniversary of the de facto authorities’ declaration of independence, on September 2, 1990. © Alexander Udodov
The entrance of one of Russia’s two military bases in the region. There is also another base in the city of Bender, but ordinary people do not have access to it.
The entrance of one of Russia’s two military bases in the region. There is also another base in the city of Bender, but ordinary people do not have access to it. © Alexander Udodov
The officers’ quarters of the Russian army in Tiraspol.
The officers’ quarters of the Russian army in Tiraspol. © Alexander Udodov
People queue at the cash machine of one of the branches of the Russian Sberbank bank in Tiraspol.
People queue at the cash machine of one of the branches of the Russian Sberbank bank in Tiraspol. © Alexander Udodov
A woman wears a mask on a bus in Tiraspol. The region has been supplied with Covid-19 vaccines from both the Russian Federation and Moldova. The authorities offer vaccines to Ukrainian refugees who have not been immunised.
A woman wears a mask on a bus in Tiraspol. The region has been supplied with Covid-19 vaccines from both the Russian Federation and Moldova. The authorities offer vaccines to Ukrainian refugees who have not been immunised. © Alexandru Vengher
An elderly woman wears a mask on a bus in Tiraspol.
An elderly woman wears a mask on a bus in Tiraspol. © Alexandru Vengher
A bust of Lenin sits in front of the House of Soviets, one of Tiraspol’s landmarks and home to the city’s de facto local authorities. Built in the 1950s, the four-storey building features a massive ten-column portico.
A bust of Lenin sits in front of the House of Soviets, one of Tiraspol’s landmarks and home to the city’s de facto local authorities. Built in the 1950s, the four-storey building features a massive ten-column portico. © Alexander Udodov
An imperious statue of Lenin guards Transnistria’s Brutalist de facto parliament in Tiraspol.
An imperious statue of Lenin guards Transnistria’s Brutalist de facto parliament in Tiraspol. © Alexander Udodov
A bust of Lenin in front of an administrative building in Tiraspol, with the territory’s red-green-red flag. Featuring a golden hammer and sickle, it was the official flag of the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic until the fall of the USSR and was adopted by the region in 2000.
A bust of Lenin in front of an administrative building in Tiraspol, with the territory’s red-green-red flag. Featuring a golden hammer and sickle, it was the official flag of the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic until the fall of the USSR and was adopted by the region in 2000. © Alexander Udodov
“Happy Chanukah” and a menorah stitched on cloth during a children’s gathering at the Mygdal Jewish Centre.
“Happy Chanukah” and a menorah stitched on cloth during a children’s gathering at the Mygdal Jewish Centre. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
A giant menorah was erected in the heart of Odesa, close to the landmark statue of Duc de Richelieu, the Frenchman who played a key role in making Odesa a flourishing port. Only people with a special pass can access the area, which has been off limits since the beginning of the invasion.
A giant menorah was erected in the heart of Odesa, close to the landmark statue of Duc de Richelieu, the Frenchman who played a key role in making Odesa a flourishing port. Only people with a special pass can access the area, which has been off limits since the beginning of the invasion. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
A billboard reads “The brave carries the light”. It is dedicated to the city electricians working around the clock to repair the electric grid. Russian attacks in Odesa region has put the grid under pressure and left hundreds of thousands with no electricity or heating.
A billboard reads “The brave carries the light”. It is dedicated to the city electricians working around the clock to repair the electric grid. Russian attacks in Odesa region has put the grid under pressure and left hundreds of thousands with no electricity or heating. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Mikhailo is about to light the first candle at the Mygdal Jewish Centre. A former student of the centre, he returned to Odesa from Lviv, where he currently lives, to celebrate Hannukah.
Mikhailo is about to light the first candle at the Mygdal Jewish Centre. A former student of the centre, he returned to Odesa from Lviv, where he currently lives, to celebrate Hannukah. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Preparing the krustyky, traditional Ukrainian fried biscuits, at Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre.
Preparing the krustyky, traditional Ukrainian fried biscuits, at Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Children at the Odesa’s Mygdal Jewish Centre during Hannukah.
Children at the Odesa’s Mygdal Jewish Centre during Hannukah. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Activities with children at Odesa’s Mygdal Jewish Centre during Hannukah.
Activities with children at Odesa’s Mygdal Jewish Centre during Hannukah. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Activities with children at Odesa’s Mygdal Jewish Centre during Hannukah.
Activities with children at Odesa’s Mygdal Jewish Centre during Hannukah. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Children prepare the dough that will be used to cook krustyky, traditional Ukrainian fried biscuits, at Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre.
Children prepare the dough that will be used to cook krustyky, traditional Ukrainian fried biscuits, at Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Two older people at the Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre.
Two older people at the Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Stained glass decorate the windows in Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre.
Stained glass decorate the windows in Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
People gathering in Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre, ahead of lighting the third candle of Hannukah.
People gathering in Odesa’s main Jewish community centre, Mygdal Jewish Centre, ahead of lighting the third candle of Hannukah. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
Dim light in the Brod synagogue in Odesa. In Soviet times, the synagogue was closed and the building was handed over to the regional archive. While it has been recognised as a monument, the archive remains in the premises: the Jewish community has tried to get the building back to its sacred purpose but no decision has been taken.
Dim light in the Brod synagogue in Odesa. In Soviet times, the synagogue was closed and the building was handed over to the regional archive. While it has been recognised as a monument, the archive remains in the premises: the Jewish community has tried to get the building back to its sacred purpose but no decision has been taken. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
A couple eat at candlelight in a café in Odesa. Like most of Ukraine, the city remains in the dark as Russian shelling has been targeting power plants across the country, leaving millions with no electricity and no heating.
A couple eat at candlelight in a café in Odesa. Like most of Ukraine, the city remains in the dark as Russian shelling has been targeting power plants across the country, leaving millions with no electricity and no heating. © Zhenia Pedin / IWPR
The Manasyan brothers - Vigen, 46, and Arthur, 38 - get ready for the harvest. Most of their arable lands fell under Azerbaijani control in 2020, but they retain a small wheatfield near their house and tend vineyards for an owner who too scared to go there due to the proximity of Azerbaijan’s military posts.
The Manasyan brothers - Vigen, 46, and Arthur, 38 - get ready for the harvest. Most of their arable lands fell under Azerbaijani control in 2020, but they retain a small wheatfield near their house and tend vineyards for an owner who too scared to go there due to the proximity of Azerbaijan’s military posts. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
A vehicle loaded with soil drives into Machkalashen, a village of a few hundred residents in Karabakh’s Martuni district and a few hundred yards from Azerbaijani controlled territory.
A vehicle loaded with soil drives into Machkalashen, a village of a few hundred residents in Karabakh’s Martuni district and a few hundred yards from Azerbaijani controlled territory. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Originally from Hadrut, Shushan moved to Machkalashen when she got married. Three of her four sons are serving in the army, the youngest is still in school. “If there is another war, we will all be killed, now we have nowhere to go. Before the 44-day war our borders were further away, we felt safer - at a greater distance from the border and the enemy, but now it is too close,” she told IWPR. Hadrut fell under Azerbaijani control in 2020 and she laments not being able to visit the grave of her relatives, in
Originally from Hadrut, Shushan moved to Machkalashen when she got married. Three of her four sons are serving in the army, the youngest is still in school. “If there is another war, we will all be killed, now we have nowhere to go. Before the 44-day war our borders were further away, we felt safer - at a greater distance from the border and the enemy, but now it is too close,” she told IWPR. Hadrut fell under Azerbaijani control in 2020 and she laments not being able to visit the grave of her relatives, including her father’s, who died in the first Karabakh war in the 1990s. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Machkalashen’s shop is the village’s central meeting place where residents gather to discuss daily news, the situation on the border and plan their agricultural work.
Machkalashen’s shop is the village’s central meeting place where residents gather to discuss daily news, the situation on the border and plan their agricultural work. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
The harvest does not stop, even though the vineyards the Manasyans tend are less than a kilometre from Azerbaijan’s military positions. In 2021, Azerbaijani troops inched forward and tried to position themselves right by the vineyard.
The harvest does not stop, even though the vineyards the Manasyans tend are less than a kilometre from Azerbaijan’s military positions. In 2021, Azerbaijani troops inched forward and tried to position themselves right by the vineyard. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Shushan, Sareda, Nora during the harvest. Resident use large parts of the harvest, producing wine and vodka for personal use, but some of it is sold to wine producers. The main winery among Karabakh’s 15 producers, Kataro, was based in the village of Togh, in Hadrut region, which fell under the control of Azerbaijan in 2020.
Shushan, Sareda, Nora during the harvest. Resident use large parts of the harvest, producing wine and vodka for personal use, but some of it is sold to wine producers. The main winery among Karabakh’s 15 producers, Kataro, was based in the village of Togh, in Hadrut region, which fell under the control of Azerbaijan in 2020. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Anush and Arthur Manasyan married 11 years ago and have two children. The couple live with Arthur’s mother, and his brother Vigen lives with his family in the house next door.
Anush and Arthur Manasyan married 11 years ago and have two children. The couple live with Arthur’s mother, and his brother Vigen lives with his family in the house next door. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Workers join forces to push the truck where grapes are unloaded from the buckets.
Workers join forces to push the truck where grapes are unloaded from the buckets. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Bunches of Rkatsitelli pile up by the truck. Once full, it will be driven to Martuni where the grapes will be unloaded at the local branch of the BH Brandy Company, a Yerevan-based brand producing about one million bottles a year of wine, brandy and vodka.
Bunches of Rkatsitelli pile up by the truck. Once full, it will be driven to Martuni where the grapes will be unloaded at the local branch of the BH Brandy Company, a Yerevan-based brand producing about one million bottles a year of wine, brandy and vodka. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Heno, 76, helps his neighbours during the harvest. During the first Karabakh war, a Grad rocket exploded in his house, killing his wife Sharmagh and leaving him to raise their six children alone.
Heno, 76, helps his neighbours during the harvest. During the first Karabakh war, a Grad rocket exploded in his house, killing his wife Sharmagh and leaving him to raise their six children alone. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
The coffee breaks in the vineyards are an opportunity to recover energy and unload tension: the awareness of being so close to the borderline never leaves the locals.
The coffee breaks in the vineyards are an opportunity to recover energy and unload tension: the awareness of being so close to the borderline never leaves the locals. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
The main church in Amaras valley, St. Grigoris, dates back to the fourth century. Locals say that the soil around the monastery has healing powers because it was soaked in the holy blood of the eponymous saint. Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet, reportedly opened the first Armenian school in the monastery.
The main church in Amaras valley, St. Grigoris, dates back to the fourth century. Locals say that the soil around the monastery has healing powers because it was soaked in the holy blood of the eponymous saint. Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet, reportedly opened the first Armenian school in the monastery. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
In Sos, Anush is with pupils who have just finished a class with their chess teacher, Margo. Chess is a mandatory subject in second, third and fourth grade.
In Sos, Anush is with pupils who have just finished a class with their chess teacher, Margo. Chess is a mandatory subject in second, third and fourth grade. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Winters are cold in the highlands in Sos and Machkalashen. In the school yard wood is being collected to be used as firewood during the winter season.
Winters are cold in the highlands in Sos and Machkalashen. In the school yard wood is being collected to be used as firewood during the winter season. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Sareda, 66, holds the portrait of her son Sevak, who was killed by a combat drone in the 2020 war. He was the first of Machkalashen’s 11 victims. “I stayed in the village until the end, thinking that I could protect my son, but I couldn't,” she said.
Sareda, 66, holds the portrait of her son Sevak, who was killed by a combat drone in the 2020 war. He was the first of Machkalashen’s 11 victims. “I stayed in the village until the end, thinking that I could protect my son, but I couldn't,” she said. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Nora fled Azerbaijan’s south-western town of Fizuli, Varanda in Armenian, during the first Karabakh war. All her children live in Armenia with their families, but she decided to stay in her grandfather's house in Machkalashen village.
Nora fled Azerbaijan’s south-western town of Fizuli, Varanda in Armenian, during the first Karabakh war. All her children live in Armenia with their families, but she decided to stay in her grandfather's house in Machkalashen village. © Siranush Sargsyan/IWPR
Lyudmila Kudelya, 73, hangs laundry near the ruins of her son's house, which burned down after a 120-mm mine hit their yard in February 2017. (February 3, 2022)
Lyudmila Kudelya, 73, hangs laundry near the ruins of her son's house, which burned down after a 120-mm mine hit their yard in February 2017. (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
Lyudmila on the doorstep of her house in Avdiivka. “Victor and I received this land slot from the [coke] plant. There was a pasture. We were young, strong. I remember on the first of May, on holidays, we cleared everything here and began to build the house.” (February 3, 2022)
Lyudmila on the doorstep of her house in Avdiivka. “Victor and I received this land slot from the [coke] plant. There was a pasture. We were young, strong. I remember on the first of May, on holidays, we cleared everything here and began to build the house.” (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
An abandoned house in the village of Pisky, in Donetsk region, bears the sign of heavy artillery. Before the war, the village had a population of about 3,000 people. Today only 40 remain, all of them elderly. (December 13, 2021)
An abandoned house in the village of Pisky, in Donetsk region, bears the sign of heavy artillery. Before the war, the village had a population of about 3,000 people. Today only 40 remain, all of them elderly. (December 13, 2021) © IWPR
A piano and the remains of belongings in an abandoned kindergarten in Pisky. The village lies a handful of kilometres from the airport of Donetsk. At the height of the fighting for the control of the airport, the village was a key crossing point for the Ukrainian army. The airport fell to the control of the Russian-backed militias in January 2015. (January 25, 2022)
A piano and the remains of belongings in an abandoned kindergarten in Pisky. The village lies a handful of kilometres from the airport of Donetsk. At the height of the fighting for the control of the airport, the village was a key crossing point for the Ukrainian army. The airport fell to the control of the Russian-backed militias in January 2015. (January 25, 2022) © IWPR
An old Soviet car in an abandoned house in Pisky, Donetsk region (December 13, 2021)
An old Soviet car in an abandoned house in Pisky, Donetsk region (December 13, 2021) © IWPR
A family photo album lies abandoned in an empty apartment building in Pisky, Donetsk region (January 25, 2022)
A family photo album lies abandoned in an empty apartment building in Pisky, Donetsk region (January 25, 2022) © IWPR
Sergiy, 58, at the window of his house in Avdiivka. In 2018, several 120 mm and 82 mm calibre mortar mines hit his yard. “A large mine fell in front of the house. A few more around the house. Thanks to the volunteers, one new window was set up. The second space for window I closed with boxes of sand. I do not want this all to start again. But I live in fear.” (February 3, 2022)
Sergiy, 58, at the window of his house in Avdiivka. In 2018, several 120 mm and 82 mm calibre mortar mines hit his yard. “A large mine fell in front of the house. A few more around the house. Thanks to the volunteers, one new window was set up. The second space for window I closed with boxes of sand. I do not want this all to start again. But I live in fear.” (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
An abandoned apartment building destroyed by heavy shelling in Pisky, Donetsk region. (December 15, 2021)
An abandoned apartment building destroyed by heavy shelling in Pisky, Donetsk region. (December 15, 2021) © IWPR
An abandoned house in the outskirts of Avdiivka. The city was subjected to constant heavy shelling between 2014 and 2018. (February 3, 2022)
An abandoned house in the outskirts of Avdiivka. The city was subjected to constant heavy shelling between 2014 and 2018. (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
In Avdiivka, Lidia, 61, looks after the house of her neighbour, Darya. In the spring of 2017, several 120 mm mortar rounds hit Darya’s yard. (February 3, 2022)
In Avdiivka, Lidia, 61, looks after the house of her neighbour, Darya. In the spring of 2017, several 120 mm mortar rounds hit Darya’s yard. (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
An abandoned house in the outskirts of Avdiivka, Donetsk region. Between January 29 and February 4 2017, the city was embroiled in heavy fighting, which left the city without electricity and heating for several days. (February 3, 2022)
An abandoned house in the outskirts of Avdiivka, Donetsk region. Between January 29 and February 4 2017, the city was embroiled in heavy fighting, which left the city without electricity and heating for several days. (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
Lyudmila, 73, stands near the remains of her son's house. (February 3, 2022)
Lyudmila, 73, stands near the remains of her son's house. (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
Lyudmila, 73, in her courtyard. After her son’s house was destroyed, he moved into a house in the same neighbourhood. (February 3, 2022)
Lyudmila, 73, in her courtyard. After her son’s house was destroyed, he moved into a house in the same neighbourhood. (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
A portrait of Victor Kudelya, Lyudmila’s husband, taken on February 25, 2017 after artillery from the Russian-backed militias hit his son’s house. He died in 2018.
A portrait of Victor Kudelya, Lyudmila’s husband, taken on February 25, 2017 after artillery from the Russian-backed militias hit his son’s house. He died in 2018. © IWPR
Abandoned apartment buildings in Pisky. (December 15, 2021) Due to the brutal shelling by the end of 2014, almost all residents had left the village.
Abandoned apartment buildings in Pisky. (December 15, 2021) Due to the brutal shelling by the end of 2014, almost all residents had left the village. © IWPR
Private houses, deeply damaged by shelling, in the outskirts of Avdiivka. The area between Avdiivka and the neighbouring Yasynuvata, under separatist control, remains one of the hotspots of the conflict. (February 3, 2022)
Private houses, deeply damaged by shelling, in the outskirts of Avdiivka. The area between Avdiivka and the neighbouring Yasynuvata, under separatist control, remains one of the hotspots of the conflict. (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
A damaged and abandoned private house in the outskirts of Avdiivka. (February 3, 2022)
A damaged and abandoned private house in the outskirts of Avdiivka. (February 3, 2022) © IWPR
Kartli was built in Soviet times as a sanatorium for patients with heart conditions. As hundreds of thousands of Georgians fled Abkhazia at the end of the conflict in late 1993, authorities allocated about 200 families housing there in what was supposed to be a temporary measure. Thirty years on, 130 are still there.
Kartli was built in Soviet times as a sanatorium for patients with heart conditions. As hundreds of thousands of Georgians fled Abkhazia at the end of the conflict in late 1993, authorities allocated about 200 families housing there in what was supposed to be a temporary measure. Thirty years on, 130 are still there. © David Mdzinarishvili
Residents of the Soviet-era sanatorium-turned-collective centre Kartli protest against dire living conditions in front of the ministry of internally displaced persons from the occupied territories.
Residents of the Soviet-era sanatorium-turned-collective centre Kartli protest against dire living conditions in front of the ministry of internally displaced persons from the occupied territories. © David Mdzinarishvili
Neighbours chat in one of the corridors; laundry hangs in the background. The 14-square-metre rooms were meant to house a maximum of two people at a time, but since the 1990s have been home to entire families.
Neighbours chat in one of the corridors; laundry hangs in the background. The 14-square-metre rooms were meant to house a maximum of two people at a time, but since the 1990s have been home to entire families. © David Mdzinarishvili
Nanuli Shulaia, 62, is originally from Sokumi, Abkhazia’s capital city. In January, debris fell from the ceiling, narrowly missing her grandson. “We temporarily moved the kids to our relatives – staying here is very risky. New cracks appear on the wall every day, while the existing ones grow even deeper,” she said.
Nanuli Shulaia, 62, is originally from Sokumi, Abkhazia’s capital city. In January, debris fell from the ceiling, narrowly missing her grandson. “We temporarily moved the kids to our relatives – staying here is very risky. New cracks appear on the wall every day, while the existing ones grow even deeper,” she said. © David Mdzinarishvili
Nanuli Shulaia. There is no natural gas in the building. Most of the IDPs get their heating from pellet stoves or electric heating. This is not enough to dry up the damp walls.
Nanuli Shulaia. There is no natural gas in the building. Most of the IDPs get their heating from pellet stoves or electric heating. This is not enough to dry up the damp walls. © David Mdzinarishvili
Nanuli Shulaia in her room. “In Sokhumi, I left a three-bedroom apartment and two-storey house. When we came here, I started crying – how could we fit into one room? My mother-in-law reassured me that we’d survive here a few months and then go back home. I was 32 then, I am 62 now,” she said.
Nanuli Shulaia in her room. “In Sokhumi, I left a three-bedroom apartment and two-storey house. When we came here, I started crying – how could we fit into one room? My mother-in-law reassured me that we’d survive here a few months and then go back home. I was 32 then, I am 62 now,” she said. © David Mdzinarishvili
A resident of the Kartli complex folds laundry in a corridor where residents hang up clothes since the rooms are too small.
A resident of the Kartli complex folds laundry in a corridor where residents hang up clothes since the rooms are too small. © David Mdzinarishvili
The sanatorium-turned-collective centre stands by the so-called Tbilisi Sea, an artificial lake that serves as the capital’s water reservoir.
The sanatorium-turned-collective centre stands by the so-called Tbilisi Sea, an artificial lake that serves as the capital’s water reservoir. © David Mdzinarishvili
Irma Nachkebia, 52, from Sokhumi, shows the crumbling conditions of the building.
Irma Nachkebia, 52, from Sokhumi, shows the crumbling conditions of the building. © David Mdzinarishvili
Irma Nachkebia, 52, displays her abandoned house in Abkhazia on her phone. The photo was sent to her by acquaintances.
Irma Nachkebia, 52, displays her abandoned house in Abkhazia on her phone. The photo was sent to her by acquaintances. © David Mdzinarishvili
Irma Nachkebia and her neighbour Maluza Baghbaia, 54, from Ochamchire, watch videos of Sokhumi they found online.
Irma Nachkebia and her neighbour Maluza Baghbaia, 54, from Ochamchire, watch videos of Sokhumi they found online. © David Mdzinarishvili
Gela Ormotsadze, 38, and Diana Davlianidze, 49, discuss the government’s offer regarding their relocation. Prime Minister Irakli Gharibashvili offered IDPS in Kartli the possibility of either searching for a new place by themselves (the price must be maximum 550 US dollars per square metre) or waiting for housing due to be completed by the end of 2022. Before that, the government will provide 300 Georgian Lari (100 US dollars) per month to cover rent expenses.
Gela Ormotsadze, 38, and Diana Davlianidze, 49, discuss the government’s offer regarding their relocation. Prime Minister Irakli Gharibashvili offered IDPS in Kartli the possibility of either searching for a new place by themselves (the price must be maximum 550 US dollars per square metre) or waiting for housing due to be completed by the end of 2022. Before that, the government will provide 300 Georgian Lari (100 US dollars) per month to cover rent expenses. © David Mdzinarishvili
Gela Ormotsadze, 38, shows the deeply damaged walls in Kartli. The complex, comprising two buildings, is slowly collapsing as the foundations are fragile due to water infiltration.
Gela Ormotsadze, 38, shows the deeply damaged walls in Kartli. The complex, comprising two buildings, is slowly collapsing as the foundations are fragile due to water infiltration. © David Mdzinarishvili
Six-year-old Elene sits on the bed of in her aunt’s 14 sq metre room.
Six-year-old Elene sits on the bed of in her aunt’s 14 sq metre room. © David Mdzinarishvili
Diana Davlianidze, 49, looks out from the window by the banner, “Maybe at least you can be helped.” On January 16, Zurab Kiria, 52, an IDP, killed himself. According to his neighbours, his last words were, “Maybe at least you can be helped.”
Diana Davlianidze, 49, looks out from the window by the banner, “Maybe at least you can be helped.” On January 16, Zurab Kiria, 52, an IDP, killed himself. According to his neighbours, his last words were, “Maybe at least you can be helped.” © David Mdzinarishvili
Laundry hanging out to dry in the corridor of the former sanatorium.
Laundry hanging out to dry in the corridor of the former sanatorium. © David Mdzinarishvili
An old couch and broken watch in the hall in one of the two buildings of the Kartli complex.
An old couch and broken watch in the hall in one of the two buildings of the Kartli complex. © David Mdzinarishvili
A corner of the entrance hall of the Soviet sanatorium, which was turned into collective centre in 1992. What was supposed to be a temporary housing measure for the hundreds of thousands of Georgians fleeing Abkhazia turned into permanent housing.
A corner of the entrance hall of the Soviet sanatorium, which was turned into collective centre in 1992. What was supposed to be a temporary housing measure for the hundreds of thousands of Georgians fleeing Abkhazia turned into permanent housing. © David Mdzinarishvili
An internally displaced woman from Abkhazia hangs laundry from the window of her room in Kartli.
An internally displaced woman from Abkhazia hangs laundry from the window of her room in Kartli. © David Mdzinarishvili
Laundry and a three-wheeled bike in the entrance hall of the former sanatorium.
Laundry and a three-wheeled bike in the entrance hall of the former sanatorium. © David Mdzinarishvili
The ruins of Petro's house after it was hit by four rockets.
The ruins of Petro's house after it was hit by four rockets. © IWPR
The wreckage of a bridge en route to the Polis’kyi region.
The wreckage of a bridge en route to the Polis’kyi region. © IWPR
Destroyed military equipment scattered across the road on the drive from Kyiv.
Destroyed military equipment scattered across the road on the drive from Kyiv. © IWPR
Leftover Russian ammunition lies abandoned in Zirka.
Leftover Russian ammunition lies abandoned in Zirka. © IWPR
The Maryanivka community centre, decorated in the colours of the Ukrainian flag.
The Maryanivka community centre, decorated in the colours of the Ukrainian flag. © IWPR
Locals sit outside a typical wooden house in Zirka.
Locals sit outside a typical wooden house in Zirka. © IWPR
Children play in the village of Rahivka, south west of Zirka.
Children play in the village of Rahivka, south west of Zirka. © IWPR
Lyudmyla Yankina (left) distributes aid in the village of Rahivka
Lyudmyla Yankina (left) distributes aid in the village of Rahivka © IWPR
Halyna Mykytivna Semenenko, a former factory and post-office worker in the village of Zirka.
Halyna Mykytivna Semenenko, a former factory and post-office worker in the village of Zirka. © IWPR
Ruslana Morina (centre), a primary school teacher, stands with fellow locals.
Ruslana Morina (centre), a primary school teacher, stands with fellow locals.
A house in the village of Zirka.
A house in the village of Zirka.
Ihor Denysiuk, a builder and beekeeper in the village of Zirka.
Ihor Denysiuk, a builder and beekeeper in the village of Zirka. © IWPR
A water tower decnrated in the colours of the national flag lies destroyed in Zirka.
A water tower decnrated in the colours of the national flag lies destroyed in Zirka. © IWPR
A poster advertising tours of the Chernobyl former nuclear site.
A poster advertising tours of the Chernobyl former nuclear site. © IWPR
Storks come to nest in Zirka village.
Storks come to nest in Zirka village. © IWPR
The remnants of a Russian base lie abandoned in Luhovyky.
The remnants of a Russian base lie abandoned in Luhovyky. © IWPR
All that was left of an improvised base for Russian soldiers in Luhovyky.
All that was left of an improvised base for Russian soldiers in Luhovyky. © IWPR
The Russian soldiers left scattered remnants of equipment behind when they moved on from in Luhovyky.
The Russian soldiers left scattered remnants of equipment behind when they moved on from in Luhovyky.
A man stands in front of the sign “I Love Ukraine” in Maidan Nezalezhnosti, the capital’s central square. Since the start of Ukraine's independence movement in 1990, the Maidan has been the site of political rallies including large-scale radical protest campaigns as well as the 2014 demonstrations. (February 24, 2022)
A man stands in front of the sign “I Love Ukraine” in Maidan Nezalezhnosti, the capital’s central square. Since the start of Ukraine's independence movement in 1990, the Maidan has been the site of political rallies including large-scale radical protest campaigns as well as the 2014 demonstrations. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
Queues at bank machines in Irpin, a town of 60,000 in the Kyiv region’s northwest. (February 24, 2022)
Queues at bank machines in Irpin, a town of 60,000 in the Kyiv region’s northwest. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
A message at a bank machine in Irpin states that it has run out of cash. (February 24, 2022)
A message at a bank machine in Irpin states that it has run out of cash. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
On the horizon smoke comes from the Hostomel airport. About 10 kilometres from Kyiv, Hostomel is a key international cargo airfield and home to the Antonov aircraft company. Kyiv forces re-took control of the airfield after Russian troops tried to seize it. (February 24, 2022)
On the horizon smoke comes from the Hostomel airport. About 10 kilometres from Kyiv, Hostomel is a key international cargo airfield and home to the Antonov aircraft company. Kyiv forces re-took control of the airfield after Russian troops tried to seize it. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
A long queue at a gas station starts in Irpin, just beyond Kyiv’s city boundary. (February 24, 2022)
A long queue at a gas station starts in Irpin, just beyond Kyiv’s city boundary. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
A poster in downtown Kyiv calls on Ukrainians to join the Territorial Defence Unit, a military reserve component of the armed forces with auxiliary functions. (February 24, 2022)
A poster in downtown Kyiv calls on Ukrainians to join the Territorial Defence Unit, a military reserve component of the armed forces with auxiliary functions. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
Khreshchatyk, Kyiv’s main street, is deserted in the early evening hours. (February 24, 2022)
Khreshchatyk, Kyiv’s main street, is deserted in the early evening hours. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
People with travel bags rushing to a shelter in the centre of Kyiv. (February 24, 2022)
People with travel bags rushing to a shelter in the centre of Kyiv. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
man sits in a parking lot in front of a closed shopping centre in Irpin, a town just beyond Kyiv’s city boundaries. (February 24, 2022)
man sits in a parking lot in front of a closed shopping centre in Irpin, a town just beyond Kyiv’s city boundaries. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
The deserted parking lot of a large shopping centre in Irpin. (February 24, 2022)
The deserted parking lot of a large shopping centre in Irpin. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
Lights in the gas station have been turned off, presumably to avoid drawing attention to crowded sites as the battle for control of the Hostomel airfield rages less than eight km away from Irpin. (February 24, 2022)
Lights in the gas station have been turned off, presumably to avoid drawing attention to crowded sites as the battle for control of the Hostomel airfield rages less than eight km away from Irpin. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
Vasily and Yesenia walk in the deserted centre of Kyiv. “We went out for a walk in the evening. We feel more scared at home." (February 24, 2022)
Vasily and Yesenia walk in the deserted centre of Kyiv. “We went out for a walk in the evening. We feel more scared at home." (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
Staff in a supermarket in Bucha send customers away as it now operates with reduced working hours. (February 24, 2022)
Staff in a supermarket in Bucha send customers away as it now operates with reduced working hours. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
Valery Fedulkin and Galina Fedulkina fled from Donetsk to Irpin in 2016 as they wanted to live away from the conflict. They lie on the bed near their “go” bags. (February 24, 2022)
Valery Fedulkin and Galina Fedulkina fled from Donetsk to Irpin in 2016 as they wanted to live away from the conflict. They lie on the bed near their “go” bags. (February 24, 2022) © IWPR
Krasnopliske cemetery of unidentified defenders of Ukraine in Dnipro.
Krasnopliske cemetery of unidentified defenders of Ukraine in Dnipro. © Zoya Shu
Inna Dumchyk, Lozivatka, (Kriviy Rig region) – Yaroslav Dumchyk went missing near Ilovaisk, in Donetsk region, during the 26 days of fighting between Ukrainian forces and Russian-supported and armed militias. The city fell into the pro-Moscow forces on September 2, 2014. Yaroslav’s mother, Inna, says that he called her in December of the same year. 
Inna Dumchyk, Lozivatka, (Kriviy Rig region) – Yaroslav Dumchyk went missing near Ilovaisk, in Donetsk region, during the 26 days of fighting between Ukrainian forces and Russian-supported and armed militias. The city fell into the pro-Moscow forces on September 2, 2014. Yaroslav’s mother, Inna, says that he called her in December of the same year.  © Zoya Shu
Liliana Kolesova, Pokrovsk (Donetsk region) – Liliana last saw her son as a teenager. Today, Yevhen would be 25. In July 2014, 17-year-old Yevhen got into a car with three acquaintances in his native Pokrovsk, a city of about 60,000 people in Donetsk region. None of the four young men have returned or has been found thus far. 
Liliana Kolesova, Pokrovsk (Donetsk region) – Liliana last saw her son as a teenager. Today, Yevhen would be 25. In July 2014, 17-year-old Yevhen got into a car with three acquaintances in his native Pokrovsk, a city of about 60,000 people in Donetsk region. None of the four young men have returned or has been found thus far.  © Zoya Shu
Maryna Tsyba, Pavlograd (Dnipropetrovsk region) – Serhiy Shevchenko’s medals still hang in his room. He was a good volleyball player but admired the army and after graduating from school he signed up and enlisted. 
Maryna Tsyba, Pavlograd (Dnipropetrovsk region) – Serhiy Shevchenko’s medals still hang in his room. He was a good volleyball player but admired the army and after graduating from school he signed up and enlisted.  © Zoya Shu
Galina Pugachova, Kharkiv – The first time Pavlo went to the seaside he returned with a gift for his mother Galina: a seagull's feather. He was 11.
Galina Pugachova, Kharkiv – The first time Pavlo went to the seaside he returned with a gift for his mother Galina: a seagull's feather. He was 11. © Zoya Shu
Yadviga Lozinska, Dnipro – Yadviga has not touched Andriy's closet; his son’s belongings are still there.
Yadviga Lozinska, Dnipro – Yadviga has not touched Andriy's closet; his son’s belongings are still there. © Zoya Shu
Larisa Martyrosova, Pokrovsk (Donetsk region) – “My son Spartak lived with a girl. He left to get groceries by car on August 20, 2014. At night, they called his girlfriend and asked if Spartak Martyrosov was her husband. They said that he was in Makiivka in a basement, kept by Zakriev Mansur, a Chechen militiaman.” 
Larisa Martyrosova, Pokrovsk (Donetsk region) – “My son Spartak lived with a girl. He left to get groceries by car on August 20, 2014. At night, they called his girlfriend and asked if Spartak Martyrosov was her husband. They said that he was in Makiivka in a basement, kept by Zakriev Mansur, a Chechen militiaman.”  © Zoya Shu
Victoria Yaremchuk, Kropivnitsky (Kirovhrad region) – Oleksandr Yaremchuk went missing on Ukraine’s independence day, on August 24, 2014. The history and law teacher-turned-soldier was evacuating the wounded from Savur-Mohyla, in Donetsk region, close to the Russian border.
Victoria Yaremchuk, Kropivnitsky (Kirovhrad region) – Oleksandr Yaremchuk went missing on Ukraine’s independence day, on August 24, 2014. The history and law teacher-turned-soldier was evacuating the wounded from Savur-Mohyla, in Donetsk region, close to the Russian border. © Zoya Shu
Kateryna Khomyak, Lutsk Kateryna – Khomyak’s two sons, Dmytro and Volodymyr, served in the Aydar Battalion. They went missing after the battalion was ambushed south of Shchastia on September 5, 2014. 
Kateryna Khomyak, Lutsk Kateryna – Khomyak’s two sons, Dmytro and Volodymyr, served in the Aydar Battalion. They went missing after the battalion was ambushed south of Shchastia on September 5, 2014.  © Zoya Shu
Tetiana Dobrovolska, Kropivnitsky (Kirovhrad region) – "Serhiy is alive somewhere, a witness saw him in 2016 in a basement in the Donetsk region, and then he was seen in a prison in Makiivka,” Tetiana Dobrovolska believes.
Tetiana Dobrovolska, Kropivnitsky (Kirovhrad region) – "Serhiy is alive somewhere, a witness saw him in 2016 in a basement in the Donetsk region, and then he was seen in a prison in Makiivka,” Tetiana Dobrovolska believes. © Zoya Shu
Svitlana Anikina, Pavlograd (Dnipropetrovsk region) – Maksym Anikin was 24 when he vanished in Ilovaisk. He was a crew member of a BMP-2 tank in the 93rd separate mechanized brigade.
Svitlana Anikina, Pavlograd (Dnipropetrovsk region) – Maksym Anikin was 24 when he vanished in Ilovaisk. He was a crew member of a BMP-2 tank in the 93rd separate mechanized brigade. © Zoya Shu
Simple wooden crosses with numbers mark graves in Pishchanske cemetery on Shakespeare Street in Izyum’s outskirts, where Russians buried most of the residents who died during the occupation.
Simple wooden crosses with numbers mark graves in Pishchanske cemetery on Shakespeare Street in Izyum’s outskirts, where Russians buried most of the residents who died during the occupation. © Danil Pavlov
Employees of Ukraine’s state emergency service carry a body bag in the pine forest in the outskirts of the retaken town of Izyum. Ukrainian authorities discovered a mass burial site with hundreds of graves.
Employees of Ukraine’s state emergency service carry a body bag in the pine forest in the outskirts of the retaken town of Izyum. Ukrainian authorities discovered a mass burial site with hundreds of graves. © Danil Pavlov
Protected by head-to-toe suits and rubber gloves, workers recover the remains of the victims. They carefully collect and classify all possible objects, which could help to identify those buried in unmarked graves.
Protected by head-to-toe suits and rubber gloves, workers recover the remains of the victims. They carefully collect and classify all possible objects, which could help to identify those buried in unmarked graves. © Danil Pavlov
An investigator examines an exhumed body. As of November, 447 bodies had been found, of both military personnel and civilians, including children. On November 28, DNA analysis identified the body of Volodymyr Vakulenko, a young poet and writer, who kept a diary about Russian occupation and hid it under a cherry tree in his garden.
An investigator examines an exhumed body. As of November, 447 bodies had been found, of both military personnel and civilians, including children. On November 28, DNA analysis identified the body of Volodymyr Vakulenko, a young poet and writer, who kept a diary about Russian occupation and hid it under a cherry tree in his garden. © Danil Pavlov
A black bag containing an exhumed body from the mass grave in Izyum reads 344 “Unknown man”.
A black bag containing an exhumed body from the mass grave in Izyum reads 344 “Unknown man”. © Danil Pavlov
Police officers work in a tent near the mass burial site.
Police officers work in a tent near the mass burial site. © Danil Pavlov
A refrigerated truck transports exhumed bodies from Izyum’s mass grave site.
A refrigerated truck transports exhumed bodies from Izyum’s mass grave site. © Danil Pavlov
Priest Yuriy Potykun conducts a memorial service at the mass burial site in the forest on the outskirts of Izyum.
Priest Yuriy Potykun conducts a memorial service at the mass burial site in the forest on the outskirts of Izyum. © Danil Pavlov
Viktor Sytnyk, 64, holds the death certificate of his mother Natalia who died on May 21. After a rocket hit their house, she was rushed to the local hospital and underwent surgery, but died following a traumatic shock.
Viktor Sytnyk, 64, holds the death certificate of his mother Natalia who died on May 21. After a rocket hit their house, she was rushed to the local hospital and underwent surgery, but died following a traumatic shock. © Danil Pavlov
After detailing the circumstances of how his mother died to the prosecutor, Viktor Sytnyk signs a statement giving his consent to provide DNA samples and process personal data.
After detailing the circumstances of how his mother died to the prosecutor, Viktor Sytnyk signs a statement giving his consent to provide DNA samples and process personal data. © Danil Pavlov
Prosecutor Ivan Likhovyn sorts Viktor Sytnyk’s DNA samples. Cotton swabs are rubbed inside his cheek, packed in an envelope and sent for forensic analysis.
Prosecutor Ivan Likhovyn sorts Viktor Sytnyk’s DNA samples. Cotton swabs are rubbed inside his cheek, packed in an envelope and sent for forensic analysis. © Danil Pavlov
Prosecutor Ivan Likhovyn packs Viktor Sytnyk's DNA samples in an envelope. The sample will be added to the database with those collected from exhumed bodies in the mass grave to find a match.
Prosecutor Ivan Likhovyn packs Viktor Sytnyk's DNA samples in an envelope. The sample will be added to the database with those collected from exhumed bodies in the mass grave to find a match. © Danil Pavlov
The investigator records the details of the death of Victor Sytnyk's mother. By the time Viktor had arranged the funeral and returned to the morgue, his mother’s body was gone. He was told that a team organised by the occupation authorities had already taken it to the cemetery.
The investigator records the details of the death of Victor Sytnyk's mother. By the time Viktor had arranged the funeral and returned to the morgue, his mother’s body was gone. He was told that a team organised by the occupation authorities had already taken it to the cemetery. © Danil Pavlov
A woman sits with a prosecutor in Izyum’s makeshift police station in a former shopping centre. Residents who are trying to locate the bodies of their beloved queue to give testimonies and provide DNA samples.
A woman sits with a prosecutor in Izyum’s makeshift police station in a former shopping centre. Residents who are trying to locate the bodies of their beloved queue to give testimonies and provide DNA samples. © Danil Pavlov
A woman tries to connect a broken phone to a prosecutor's computer to show a copy of her dead mother's passport.
A woman tries to connect a broken phone to a prosecutor's computer to show a copy of her dead mother's passport. © Danil Pavlov
Viktor Sytnykin in the yard of his house. He is clinging on to the hope that the body of his 90-year-old mother Natalia will be identified. "I don't believe [the Russians] will be punished, but I want my mother to have at least a grave," the former forest ranger said.
Viktor Sytnykin in the yard of his house. He is clinging on to the hope that the body of his 90-year-old mother Natalia will be identified. "I don't believe [the Russians] will be punished, but I want my mother to have at least a grave," the former forest ranger said. © Danil Pavlov
Viktor Sytnyk near his house in Izyum. On May 21, a rocket fell in their yard, shattering the window in his mother Natalia’s room. She died from her injuries.
Viktor Sytnyk near his house in Izyum. On May 21, a rocket fell in their yard, shattering the window in his mother Natalia’s room. She died from her injuries. © Danil Pavlov
Viktor Sytnyk feeds cats in the kitchen of his house.
Viktor Sytnyk feeds cats in the kitchen of his house. © Danil Pavlov
Viktor Sytnyk shows a pillow cut by shrapnel, with which he covered his face to walk into his mother’s room after a rocket fell in their yard on May 21.
Viktor Sytnyk shows a pillow cut by shrapnel, with which he covered his face to walk into his mother’s room after a rocket fell in their yard on May 21. © Danil Pavlov
Local residents take all available wood from a destroyed school to use as firewood. There is no heating in the town, and electricity is limited to the bare minimum.
Local residents take all available wood from a destroyed school to use as firewood. There is no heating in the town, and electricity is limited to the bare minimum. © Danil Pavlov
A woman walks in front of the skeleton of a building in central Izyum. Hardly a building in the town is left undamaged.
A woman walks in front of the skeleton of a building in central Izyum. Hardly a building in the town is left undamaged. © Danil Pavlov
Ukrainian servicemen at the checkpoint at the entrance of Izyum. Russian troops retreated on September 10, six months after occupying the town in the Kharkiv region.
Ukrainian servicemen at the checkpoint at the entrance of Izyum. Russian troops retreated on September 10, six months after occupying the town in the Kharkiv region. © Danil Pavlov
What remains of the town’s bus station.
What remains of the town’s bus station. © Danil Pavlov
A chair with the Ukrainian flag sits in front of the heavily damaged building of Izyum’s district court.
A chair with the Ukrainian flag sits in front of the heavily damaged building of Izyum’s district court. © Danil Pavlov
Stela Gevorgyan, 37, and her mother lived with a relative when the earthquake hit. The extended family was made homeless, but Gevorgyan’s mother managed to move into the shelter. Her mother died in late 2021 and the daughter still lives there alone.
Stela Gevorgyan, 37, and her mother lived with a relative when the earthquake hit. The extended family was made homeless, but Gevorgyan’s mother managed to move into the shelter. Her mother died in late 2021 and the daughter still lives there alone. © Armine Avetisyan
Stela Gevorgyan has lived in her 15-square-metre since she was four. It has no private bathroom, running water or heating. She has been saving for years, but cannot afford to purchase an apartment.
Stela Gevorgyan has lived in her 15-square-metre since she was four. It has no private bathroom, running water or heating. She has been saving for years, but cannot afford to purchase an apartment. © Armine Avetisyan
As there is no water in the cottage, Stela Gevorgyan uses the connection from a neighbour to do the laundry. She uses the public baths to shower.
As there is no water in the cottage, Stela Gevorgyan uses the connection from a neighbour to do the laundry. She uses the public baths to shower. © Armine Avetisyan
Stela Gevorgyan with her two dogs.
Stela Gevorgyan with her two dogs. © Armine Avetisyan
Prior to the earthquake, Zhanna Zhamakochyan, now 71, lived in a rented house. After the disaster, she and her family lived in various shelters including a garage. They also slept rough. In 1991 they managed to settle in a domik and received a temporary registration.
Prior to the earthquake, Zhanna Zhamakochyan, now 71, lived in a rented house. After the disaster, she and her family lived in various shelters including a garage. They also slept rough. In 1991 they managed to settle in a domik and received a temporary registration. © Armine Avetisyan
Zhanna Zhamakochyan’s shelter is part of a series that were set up to house Russian builders who had come to Gyumri for the reconstruction effort. It is a series of two-storey caravans where scores of families still live.
Zhanna Zhamakochyan’s shelter is part of a series that were set up to house Russian builders who had come to Gyumri for the reconstruction effort. It is a series of two-storey caravans where scores of families still live. © Armine Avetisyan
The roof of the house is worn out. The cottage always smells of mould.
The roof of the house is worn out. The cottage always smells of mould. © Armine Avetisyan
Yasha Manukyan,Zhanna Zhamakochyan’s husband, is 83 and has health problems. “I have one foot in a rotten cottage and the other in the cemetery,” he said. He does not believe that he will live long enough for their temporary registration to be replaced by a permanent one, and for the rotten house to be replaced by a normal one.
Yasha Manukyan,Zhanna Zhamakochyan’s husband, is 83 and has health problems. “I have one foot in a rotten cottage and the other in the cemetery,” he said. He does not believe that he will live long enough for their temporary registration to be replaced by a permanent one, and for the rotten house to be replaced by a normal one. © Armine Avetisyan
Tatev Harutyunyan has spent her entire life in the temporary shelter. At 34, she is a mother of two and saddened that her dream of a permanent home has been passed onto her children.
Tatev Harutyunyan has spent her entire life in the temporary shelter. At 34, she is a mother of two and saddened that her dream of a permanent home has been passed onto her children. © Armine Avetisyan
Unlike other domiks, Tatev Harutyunyan’s home has heating.
Unlike other domiks, Tatev Harutyunyan’s home has heating. © Armine Avetisyan
Each cottage is marked with the address of the shelter registration number. Once residents can move into proper accommodation, they receive a permanent address. Harutyunyan remains optimistic that her family will have a forever home.
Each cottage is marked with the address of the shelter registration number. Once residents can move into proper accommodation, they receive a permanent address. Harutyunyan remains optimistic that her family will have a forever home. © Armine Avetisyan
64-year-old Samvel Alvanjyan received an apartment as compensation but he was then forced to sell it. “We had health issues, we needed the money,” he explained.
64-year-old Samvel Alvanjyan received an apartment as compensation but he was then forced to sell it. “We had health issues, we needed the money,” he explained. © Armine Avetisyan
Alvanjyan lives in this cottage with his wife, their son, daughter-in-law and two grandchildren. They have come to terms with the fact that this shelter is their permanent home. They have improved the cottage as much as they can, they only get upset during the winter months as it gets cold.
Alvanjyan lives in this cottage with his wife, their son, daughter-in-law and two grandchildren. They have come to terms with the fact that this shelter is their permanent home. They have improved the cottage as much as they can, they only get upset during the winter months as it gets cold. © Armine Avetisyan
The family does not have enough money to heat the house so collect newspapers and cardboard boxes throughout the year to burn in this rudimentary stove.
The family does not have enough money to heat the house so collect newspapers and cardboard boxes throughout the year to burn in this rudimentary stove. © Armine Avetisyan
There are residents who received apartments years ago but decided to remain in the shelters and rent the flats out to have an income. There are also people who have moved out but retained the temporary registration and rent out the cottages.
There are residents who received apartments years ago but decided to remain in the shelters and rent the flats out to have an income. There are also people who have moved out but retained the temporary registration and rent out the cottages. © Armine Avetisyan
Gohar Grigoryan, 61, was born in Gyumri. She lost her house during the earthquake, received compensation from the state, then sold everything and moved to Nagorny Karabakh. During the 2020 war, she was forced to flee and her house fell under the control of Azerbaijan.
Gohar Grigoryan, 61, was born in Gyumri. She lost her house during the earthquake, received compensation from the state, then sold everything and moved to Nagorny Karabakh. During the 2020 war, she was forced to flee and her house fell under the control of Azerbaijan. © Armine Avetisyan
The shelter that Gohar Grigoryan rents is unhealthy and dilapidated. She pays 30,000 Armenian drams (50 US dollars) a month.
The shelter that Gohar Grigoryan rents is unhealthy and dilapidated. She pays 30,000 Armenian drams (50 US dollars) a month. © Armine Avetisyan
Not all cottages built after the earthquake are inhabited. About 508 of registered ones are vacant. Authorities are dismantling those left vacant by residents who managed to move onto permanent houses.
Not all cottages built after the earthquake are inhabited. About 508 of registered ones are vacant. Authorities are dismantling those left vacant by residents who managed to move onto permanent houses. © Armine Avetisyan

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A young woman talks on her mobile phone as she walks past a mural depicting (L-R) Cuban Comunist Party founder Julio Antonio Mella and Cuban revolutionary leaders Camilo Cienfuegos and Che Guevara in the Habana Vieja neighborhood January 24, 2015 in Havana, Cuba.
A young woman talks on her mobile phone as she walks past a mural depicting (L-R) Cuban Comunist Party founder Julio Antonio Mella and Cuban revolutionary leaders Camilo Cienfuegos and Che Guevara in the Habana Vieja neighborhood January 24, 2015 in Havana, Cuba. © Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images
An Iraqi man sells coffee in the capital Baghdad's now deserted al-Mutanabbi street during the novel coronavirus pandemic crisis.
An Iraqi man sells coffee in the capital Baghdad's now deserted al-Mutanabbi street during the novel coronavirus pandemic crisis. © AHMAD AL-RUBAYE/AFP via Getty Images
Paula Bronstein/Getty Images
Paula Bronstein/Getty Images © Paula Bronstein/Getty Images
Pigeons fly after being fed by Syrians in the courtyard of the Omayad mosque October 18, 2002 in Damascus, Syria.
Pigeons fly after being fed by Syrians in the courtyard of the Omayad mosque October 18, 2002 in Damascus, Syria. © Chris Hondros/Getty Images
Rohingya refugees walk across fields at dusk after crossing the border from Myanmar on September 09, 2017 in Gundum, Bangladesh.
Rohingya refugees walk across fields at dusk after crossing the border from Myanmar on September 09, 2017 in Gundum, Bangladesh. © Dan Kitwood/Getty Images
A fire burns in a hardware store after a rocket attack caused the building to catch fire on October 3, 2020 in Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh.
A fire burns in a hardware store after a rocket attack caused the building to catch fire on October 3, 2020 in Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh. © Brendan Hoffman/Getty Images
Northern Iraqi Kurds Hendrin Usman (L) and Ubeid Hasen look out a window of their house adorned with doves June 16, 2003 in a village near Erbil, Iraq.
Northern Iraqi Kurds Hendrin Usman (L) and Ubeid Hasen look out a window of their house adorned with doves June 16, 2003 in a village near Erbil, Iraq. © Mario Tama/Getty Images
Rohingya Muslim refugees wait to board boats over a creek after crossing the Myanmar Bangladesh border on September 07, 2017 in Whaikhyang, Bangladesh.
Rohingya Muslim refugees wait to board boats over a creek after crossing the Myanmar Bangladesh border on September 07, 2017 in Whaikhyang, Bangladesh. © Dan Kitwood/Getty Images
Children sit chatting in a street ravaged by pro-regime forces air strikes, in the town of Ariha in the southern countryside of the Idlib province on April 11, 2020.
Children sit chatting in a street ravaged by pro-regime forces air strikes, in the town of Ariha in the southern countryside of the Idlib province on April 11, 2020. © AAREF WATAD/AFP via Getty Images
Displaced Syrian girls wear face masks decorated by artists during a COVID-19 awareness campaign at the Bardaqli camp in Syria's Idlib province, on April 20, 2020.
Displaced Syrian girls wear face masks decorated by artists during a COVID-19 awareness campaign at the Bardaqli camp in Syria's Idlib province, on April 20, 2020. © AAREF WATAD/AFP via Getty Images
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